Citing

All sources used in assignments and reports, whether in print, not in print, or published electronically, should be cited in line with the bibliographic techniques. Indicating the ideas, methods, data, or applications used or referred to in academic studies is an obligation. This obligation not only protects us from ethical violations, but is also important for honoring and holding accountable the author(s) of the reference material. Besides, the full and proper citation of resources will be helpful as well for other researchers who want to utilize the same resources we have. The bibliographic techniques and methods preferred in line with the different natures of academic disciplines may vary. The most widely used methods are MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style. Unlike the others, Chicago has two types of method. One of these types, known as the author-date method, resembles MLA and APA methods and is based on briefly indicating the author and the publication date of the resource in brackets within the text, instead of in a footnote. In the bibliography section of this method, the publication date of the resource is placed right after the name of the author to make the signalling of the resource within the text easier. In the Chicago method known as Notes-Bibliography or Humanities, when a citation needs to be made, a number is given without spoiling the coherence of the text directing readers to the footnote section, in which there is bibliographic information regarding the resources used. Furthermore, should there be a need, more information can be provided, comments can be made, and those points which have to be noted but might spoil the coherence of the text can be included. The notes-bibliography method is preferred in the social sciences, especially in disciplines such as anthropology, history, art, and literature. Bibliographic methods may vary in accordance with the topic studied and the academic discipline. Students in the Department of Turkish Language and Literature will use the Chicago Manual of Style method in their assignments and theses.

You can find examples of footnotes and bibliographic entries prepared in line with the Chicago Manual of Style Notes-Bibliography method below. For more examples, you can visit http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. For more detailed examples and other information regarding this topic, you can refer to “The Chicago Manual of Style”, every issue of which is bought and placed in Boğaziçi University Library References Section (Call # Z253 .U69 2003 or Z253 .C57 2006 CD-ROM).

Examples: (“F” means footnote and “B” means bibliographic entry. Endnotes placed at the end of the chapters in articles, magazines, and books with multiple authors are no different from footnotes in terms of form.)

Books with a Single Author:

F: Name Lastname, Title of Work (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication), page number.

F: Erol Köroğlu, Türk edebiyatı ve Birinci Dünya Savaşı, 1914-1918 : propagandadan milli kimlik inşasına (İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2004), 35.

B: Lastname, Name.Title of Work. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication.

B: Köroğlu, Erol. Türk edebiyatı ve Birinci Dünya Savaşı, 1914-1918 : propagandadan milli kimlik inşasına. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2004. 
 

Books with Two Authors: 

F: İnci Enginün and Zeynep Kerman, Bütün Eserleri/Ahmet Haşim (İstanbul: Dergah Yayınları,1991), 25-28.

B: Enginün, İnci, and Zeynep Kerman. Bütün Eserleri/Ahmet Haşim. İstanbul: Dergah Yayınları, 1991.

Books with Three Authors :

F: İrfan Dağdelen, Hüseyin Türkmen, and Nergis Ulu, Türk Kütüphaneciliğinden İzdişümler: Nail Bayraktara Armağan (İstanbul : Büyükşehir Belediye Başkanlığı - Kültürel ve Sosyal İşler Daire Başkanlığı - Kütüphane ve Müzeler Müdürlüğü, 2005).

B: Dağdelen, İrfan, Hüseyin Türkmen, and Nergis Ulu. Türk Kütüphaneciliğinden İzdişümler: Nail Bayraktara Armağan. İstanbul: Büyükşehir Belediye Başkanlığı, Kültürel ve Sosyal İşler Daire Başkanlığı, Kütüphane ve Müzeler Müdürlüğü, 2005. 

Books with Four or More Authors:

F: Günay Kut et al., Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Kandilli Rasathanesi ve Deprem Araştırma Enstitüsü Astronomi Astroloji Matematik Yazmaları Kataloğu : Kandilli Rasathanesi el yazmaları (İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, 2007), 104.

B: Kut, Günay, Hatice Aynur, Cumhure Üçer, and Fatma Büyükkarcı. Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Kandilli Rasathanesi ve Deprem Araştırma Enstitüsü Astronomi Astroloji Matematik Yazmaları Kataloğu : Kandilli Rasathanesi el yazmaları. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, 2007. 

Books with both an Author and an Editor for Publication

F: Ahmet Mithat, Ahbar-ı Âsara Tamim- Enzar:(1307-1890) Edebi Eserlere Genel Bir Bakış, ed. Nüket Esen (İstanbul: İletişim Yayınevi, 2003). 46.

B: Ahmet Mithat. Ahbar-ı Âsara Tamim-i Enzar:(1307-1890) Edebi Eserlere Genel Bir Bakış. Ed. Nüket Esen. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınevi, 2003. (If the author’s name is known, it is written first.) 

Books with both an Author and a Translator:

F: Norman Hampson, Aydınlanma Çağı, trans. Jale Parla (İstanbul: Hürriyet Vakfı Yayınları, 1991), 150.

B: Hampson, Norman. Aydınlanma Çağı. Translated by Jale Parla. İstanbul: Hürriyet Vakfı Yayınları, 1991.

If the author or editor’s name is uncertain, it is written before the name of the work according to the system for an editor’s or translator’s name, and after it is written “ed./Ed.” or “trans./Trans.”

Example: F: Özdemir Nutku, ed., Romeo ve Juliet (İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi, 1984), 25.

B: Nutku, Özdemir, Ed. Romeo ve Juliet. İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi, 1984.

Book excerpt:

F: Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil, “Bölüm 22,” Aşk-ı Memnu, 8th printing, ed. Muharrem Kaya and Rahim Tarım (İstanbul: Özgür Yayınları, 2007), 43.

B: Uşaklıgil, Halid Ziya. “Bölüm 22.” Aşk-ı Memnu, 8th printing, Muharrem Kaya and Rahim Tarım. İstanbul: Özgür Yayınları, 2007. 

Printed Article:

F: Köksal Seyhan, “Yunus Emre’nin Bir Şiirinde Şehir Alegorisi,” Türklük Bilgisi Araştırmaları Journal of Turkish Studies 24/II (2000): 240.

B: Seyhan, Köksal. “Yunus Emre’nin Bir Şiirinde Şehir Alegorisi.” Türklük Bilgisi Araştırmaları Journal of Turkish Studies 24/II (2000): 231 - 280. 

Electronic Article:

F: Nezihe Seyhan, “Resurrection Day in Divan Literature,” Literature & Theology: An International Journal of Religion, Theory, and Culture, 18:1 (2004 Mar), 64. (accessed 12.08.2009)

B: Seyhan, Nezihe. “Resurrection Day in Divan Literature.” Literature & Theology: An International Journal of Religion, Theory, and Culture. 18:1 (2004 Mar), 62-76. (accessed 12.08.2009) 

Encyclopedia entry:

F: Türk Musikisi Ansiklopedisi, Yılmaz Öztuna (İstanbul: MEB Devlet Kitapları, 1969), “Itri.”

B: Türk Musikisi Ansiklopedisi. Yılmaz Öztuna. 2 vols. İstanbul: MEB Devlet Kitapları, 1969.

Well-known encyclopedias that cannot be confused with any similarly named publication need not be listed in the bibliography. In footnotes they are cited in short form. Example:

F: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “Salvation.” 

Web Page:

F: T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, “Aşık Edebiyatı,” Aşık-Tekke Edebiyatı,

B: T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı. “Aşık Edebiyatı.” Aşık-Tekke Edebiyatı.

Dissertation:

F: Zeynep Sabuncu, “Mihr ü Mah: A Mathnawi of Mustafa Âli” (M.A. thesis, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, 1983), 112.

B: Sabuncu, Zeynep. “Mihr ü Mah: A Mathnawi of Mustafa Âli.” M.A. thesis, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, 1983. 

Unpublished Conference:

F: Mustafa Akdağ ve Hidayet Tok, “Geleneksel öğretim ile power point destekli öğretimin öğrenci erişisine etkisi” (Presented at XIII. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı, İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi, Malatya, July 06-09, 2004).

B: Akdağ, Mustafa ve Hidayet Tok. “Geleneksel öğretim ile power point destekli öğretimin öğrenci erişisine etkisi.” Presented at XIII. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı, İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi, Malatya, July 06-09, 2004.